It is said that about 10 to 20% of pneumonia is caused by mycoplasma, and it is said that it is common in the age of 5 to 14 years, but mycoplasma infects both adults and infants. When someone in the family is infected with mycoplasma, it is transmitted to the whole family. Twenty-five percent of children with mycoplasma infection develop gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In addition, some people complain of ear pain and may have ear inflammation such as otitis media and myringitis. In addition, muscle pain, arthralgia, rash, etc. may appear. Complications may include rhinitis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, hemolytic anemia, myocarditis, arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Empiric treatments vary greatly in childhood pneumonia. The difference is due to the difference in the causative organism of pneumonia. In infants excluding newborns, the three major causative agents of pneumonia are Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Unlike adults, there are few Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, so it is common to choose penicillin antibiotics, which have a narrower antibacterial spectrum than third-generation cephem.
In children with underlying illness or disability, the illness is characteristic of the causative agent of pneumonia. In addition, the results of past bacterial tests also help in estimating the causative organism. In either case, if the result of sputum culture or serodiagnosis (in the case of mycoplasma) is obtained, it is necessary to change to the optimal antibacterial drug accordingly.
Pneumonia due to mycoplasma pneumonia increases in school children and older. Differentiation from bacterial pneumonia is almost impossible by X-ray image, and blood findings (presence or absence of neutrophilia, presence or absence of C-reactive protein increase, etc.), general condition, degree of airway symptoms, etc. can be used as a reference. Β-lactam antibiotics are ineffective for mycoplasma, but tetracycline antibiotics (such as minocycline) and new quinolone antibiotics are difficult or impossible to administer to children due to side effects, so macrolide antibiotics are recommended. select.